外研版高中英语必修**册Unit4 Friends forever重点单词语法

2023-01-07 09:49:54上一篇:春运期间,东航新开武汉—天津、杭州航线 |下一篇:可能是全球*神奇的零售体验!《哈利波特》纽约旗舰店正式开业

一、重点词汇

1. familiar [fmli(r)] adj.熟悉的

They are already familiar faces on our TV screens.

他们已经是我们电视屏幕上熟悉的面孔了。

2. adventure [dvent(r)] n.历险(经历),奇遇

I set off for a new adventure in Alaska on the first day of the new year.

我在新年**天出发去阿拉斯加进行一次新的冒险。

3. prefer [prf(r)] v.更喜欢

Does he prefer a particular sort of music?

他更喜欢某种特别的音乐吗?

4. lose track of 不了解……的情况,不了解……的动态

I always lose track of whats happening in the Middle East.

我总是无法知道中东的动态。

5. deliver [dlv(r)] v.递送,传送

We promise to deliver within 48 hours.

我们承诺在48小时内送到。

6. thanks to 归功于……,多亏……

Thanks to that job I became an avid reader.

多亏了那份工作我才成了一个喜欢阅读的人。

7. advance [dvns] n.进步,进展

We live in an age of rapid technological advance.

我们生活在技术迅猛发展的时代。

8. significantly [snfkntli] adv.重大地,显著地

The two sets of figures are not significantly different.

这两组数字没有明显的差别。

9. social media 社交媒体

Social media may also have played a role.

社交媒体可能也发挥了一定的作用。

10. maintain [menten] v.保持,维持

After the divorce, their father still maintained close contact with the boys.

离婚后,他们的父亲仍和儿子们保持着密切联系。

11. wi-fi [wa,fa] n.无线网络,无线上网

As long as a Wi-Fi connection is available, no extra hardware is required.

只要具有无线网络连接,就不需要额外的硬件设备。

12. click [klk] v.点击(鼠标)

Click the OK button to start.

单击确认键启动。

13. digital [ddtl] adj.数字的,数码的

When do people read their news on digital devices?

人们什么时候在数字设备上阅读新闻?

14. enable [nebl] v.使可能,使发生

The software enables you to access the Internet in seconds.

这种软件使你在几秒钟内便可访问互联网。

15. site [sat] n.网站

She can see all the content on the Web site.

她可以查看网站上的所有内容。

16. tend [tend] v.易于做某事,往往会发生某事

Women tend to live longer than men.

女人往往比男人长寿。

17. update [pdet] n.*新消息

She had heard the newsflash on a TV channels news update.

她在电视频道的新闻快讯里听到了这条简短报道。

18. throw the baby out with the bathwater 不分良莠一起抛弃

Although there are such problems, we didn’t want to throw the baby out with the bathwater.

尽管是有这样的问题存在,我们不想不分良莠一起抛弃。

19. acquire [kwa(r)] v.获得,得到

He has acquired a reputation for dishonesty.

他得到了奸诈的名声。

20. goods [dz] n.商品

Money can be exchanged for goods or services.

钱可以用来换取商品或服务。

21. prove [pru:v] v.证明,证实

Just give me a chance and Ill prove it to you.

只要给我个机会,我会证明给你看。

22. illustrate [lstret] v.(举例)说明,阐明

To illustrate my point, let me tell you a little story.

为了说明我的观点,让我来给你们讲个小故事。

23. diagram [darm] n.图解,示意图

He drew a diagram to show us how to get to his house.

他画了一张草图,告诉我们到他家该怎么走。

24. inspiring [nspar] adj.鼓舞人心的,启发灵感的

She was one of the most inspiring people Ive ever met.

她是我见过的*能鼓舞人心的人物之一。

25. teenager [tined] n.青少年,十几岁的孩子(13到19岁之间的孩子)

As a teenager he attended Tulse Hill Senior High School.

十几岁时,他上了塔尔斯山高级中学。

26. quality [kwlti] n.素质,品德

Sometimes you wonder where your kids get their good qualities.

有时候你会奇怪,自己的孩子是在哪里养成那些优良品德的。

27. anxious [ks] adj.焦虑的,不安的

There were a few anxious moments in the baseball game.

那场棒球赛中有些时刻令人焦虑不安。

28. distance [dstns] v.使与……保持距离,撇清和……的关系

When he retired, he tried to distance himself from politics.

退休后,他便尽量使自己置身于政治之外。

29. postpone [pspn] v.使(事件、行动等)延期,推迟

He decided to postpone the expedition until the following day.

他决定将探险活动推迟到第二天。

30. ordinary [dnri] adj.普通的,平常的

The meal was very ordinary.

这顿饭平常得很。

31. make ones fortune 发财

I am here to make my fortune.

我在这里寻找财富。

32. ought to 应该,应当

They ought to apologize.

他们应该道歉。

33. partner [ptn] n.伙伴,搭档

Her partner for the game was Venus Williams.

她的比赛搭挡是维纳斯威廉姆斯。

34. turn up (意外地或终于)出现

They finally turned up at nearly midnight.

他们终于在近午夜时出现了。

35. scene [si:n] n.场景

She witnessed some very distressing scenes.

她目睹过一些令人非常痛苦的场面。

36. location [lken] n.地点,位置

What is the exact location of the ship?

那条船的确切位置在哪里?

37. personality [psnlti] n.个性,性格

His wife has a strong personality.

他妻子的个性很强。

二、常用表达方式

1. Fills me with a cheerful glow.让我充满了欢乐的光辉。

fill…with...用……充满……

Fill a saucepan with water and bring to a slow boil.往平底锅里加满水,小火煮沸。

2. It gives me pleasure to think of you.我很高兴想起了你。

think of 想起,想到

I just cant think of his name.我就是想不起来他叫什么了。

3. How do you prefer to make friends?你更喜欢怎样交朋友?

prefer to do sth 更喜欢做某事

I prefer not to think about it.我不想考虑此事。

4. Talking face to face.面对面说话。

face to face 面对面

This is my first time to speak English with you face to face.这是我**次和你面对面用英语

聊天。

face-to-face adj.面对面的

Would you do this in a face-to-face meeting?你会在一个面对面的会议中做这样的事情吗?

5. How would you feel if moving to a new town meant losing track of your friends?如果搬到一个新的小镇意味着失去与朋友的联系,你会作何感想?

if引导条件状语从句,从句中动名词moving to a new town作主语,动名词losing track of your friends作宾语。

6. What if the only way of getting news from faraway friends was writing letters that took ages to be delivered?如果从远方的朋友那里得到消息的唯一途径就是写信,而且要花很长时间才能送到,那该怎么办?

(1) What if…?假使……将会怎么样?

What if this problem had to be solved in the next half-hour?如果这个问题必须在接下来的

半小时内解决呢?

(2) the way to do /of doing sth 做某事的方法

Even if you are right, thats not the way to put it.就算你对了,也不该那么说呀!

She said dates should not stand in the way of making progress.她说,日期不应该成为取得

进展的障碍。

7. Thanks to advances in technology, how we make friends and communicate with them has changed significantly.多亏科技的进步,我们交朋友以及与他们交流的方式已经发生了很大的变化。

communicate with 与……交流沟通

I can communicate with foreigners easily.我能轻松地与外国人沟通。

8. Nowadays, we can move around the world and still stay in touch with the people that we want to remain friends with.如今,我们可以在世界各地漫游,依然与我们想与之保持朋友关系的人保持联系。

stay in touch with 与……保持联系

He promised to stay in touch with us while he was abroad.他答应我们在国外的时候会和我们保持联系。

9. Social media tools let us see what our friends are up to and maintain friendships.社交媒体工具让我们看到我们的朋友在做什么,并保持着友谊。

(be) up to 忙于……,在做……

Hed have a fit if he knew what we were up to!要是他知道我们在干什么会大发脾气的!

10. The digital age also enables us to find people who share our interests…数字时代也使我们能

够找到与我们有共同兴趣的人……

enable sb to do sth 使得某人做某事

The new test should enable doctors to detect the disease early.新的检验使医生能在早期发

现该种疾病。

11. Whatever our hobbies, the Internet can connect us with others who also enjoy doing them, even if they live on the other side of the world.无论我们的爱好是什么,互联网都能让我们和那些同样喜欢做这些事情的人联系在一起,即使他们生活在世界的另一边。

(1) connect sb with sb 使某人与某人联系

Please connect me with Mr Lee.请帮我联系李先生。

(2) even if/though 即使,引导让步状语从句

Even if they are right, the debate will not be over.即使他们说得是对的,这场辩论也不会结

束。

12. It depends.这要视情况而定。

It depends./It all depends./That depends./That all depends.这要视情况而定。

I am not sure, it depends. I might have to work that day.我不确定,要看情况,我那天可能

需要工作。

13. But we need to keep in mind that what we see on social media is often not the whole truth about a person.但我们需要记住,我们在社交媒体上看到的往往不是一个人真实的全部。

keep in mind that…将……记在心里

该短语中,that…部分是宾语从句,宾语部分较长,故放在了宾补(in mind)的后面。

Keep in mind that kids sleep better if they exercise every day.切记,如果孩子每天锻炼身体,他们就睡得更好。

14. On social media sites, people tend to post only positive updates that make them appear happy and friendly.在社交媒体网站上,人们往往只发布一些积极的*新消息,让他们看起来快乐且友好。

(1) tend to do sth 倾向于做某事

These three things tend to go together.这三样东西趋向于同时存在。

(2) that引导定语从句,修饰positive updates。定语从句中 make them appear…是“make +宾语+宾补”结构,此处是不带to的不定式作宾补。

Nobody made us go to bed at a certain time.没有人让我们在某一固定时间就寝。

15. Although technology has changed the way we acquire friends, the meaning of friendship and our longing for friends remain the same.尽管科技改变了我们获得朋友的方式,但友谊的意义和我们对朋友的渴望是一样的。

(1) way作“方式,方法”讲,后接定语从句:

关系词在从句中作状语时,关系词用that, in which或省略。

The way (that/in which) he did it attracted me.他做这件事的方式吸引了我。

关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时,关系词用that或which (作宾语时关系词可省略)。

I did it in the way (that/which) you told me.我是按照你告诉我的方式做的。

(2) long for 渴望

I long for a trip to the Cape of Good Hope.我渴望到好望角去旅行。

16. As Aristotle said, no one would choose to live without friends, even if he had all other goods.正如亚里士多德所说,没有人会选择没有朋友的生活,即使他拥有所有其他的东西。

as Aristotle said是as引导的非限制性定语从句。as引导非限制性定语从句时常用于一些固定的句式,如as we all know, as you see等。

17. To persuade people to abandon traditional ways of making friends.为了劝说人们放弃传统的交友方式。

persuade sb to do sth 说服某人做某事

Try to persuade him to come.尽量劝他来。

18. Read the recipe and work out the meaning of the words in bold.阅读食谱,弄懂粗体单词的

意思。

work out 解决,算出,实现,制定出,弄懂,锻炼。文中是“弄懂"之意。

It took me some time to work out what was causing this.它花了我一些时间,找到导致这种

状况的原因。

19. Like any good soup, this wont fail to make you smile when youre feeling down.像任何美味

的汤一样,当你心情低落时,它一定会让你微笑。

(1) fail to do sth 未能做某事

The words fail to convey the meaning.词不达意。

(2) feel down 感到失落

down可作形容词,表示“悲哀的,沮丧的”。

Its okay to feel down every now and then.时不时地感觉失落是很正常的。

20.... and a slice of humour!……还有一点儿幽默!

a slice of 一片,一份

Please give me a slice of ham.请给我一片火腿肉。

21. Come up with more words if you can.如果可以,想出更多的词。

come up with 提出;想出

Several of the members have come up with suggestions of their own.有几位成员提出了自

己的建议。

22. According to a study from Yale University and the University of California at San Diego in

2014, good friends are often genetically similar.根据耶鲁大学和加利福尼亚大学圣地亚哥

分校2014年的一项研究,好朋友在基因方面通常是相似的。

according to 根据,按照

According to Mick, its a great movie.据米克说,这是一部了不起的电影。

23. In fact, good friends can share up to 1% of the same genes-as much as we might share with our great-great-great grandparents!实际上,好朋友可以共有高达1%的相同基因,就像我们可能与曾曾曾祖父母拥有相同的基因一样!

(1) up to 达到

The chaos may have contributed to the deaths of up to 20 people.混乱可能导致多达20人丧

生。

(2) as much as 和……一样多

They do not gain as much as they think.他们实际增加的体重并没有自己想象中的多。

24. When you make a suggestion, use less direct language than you would to make a statement or give an order.当你提出建议时,尽量少用直接作出声明或发号施令的语言。

(1) make a suggestion 提建议

Can I make a suggestion?我能提个建议吗?

(2) make a statement 作出声明

He wishes to make a statement that will attract public attention to the matter.他想发表一个

声明,以唤起公众对这个问题的关注。

25. This makes it clear to the other person that you are giving them a choice.这向对方清楚地表明,你是在给对方一个选择。

make it clear that…使……清楚

it是形式宾语,clear是宾补,that从句是真正宾语。

Id like to make it clear that I had nothing to do with this.我想明确地说明我和这事没关系。

26. For example, you can begin with expressions such as Why don’t we...?...例如,你可以用这

样的表达开头,例如“我们为什么不……?……”

begin with 以……开始(= start with)

It begins with three short notes and one long one.这乐曲以三个短音符和一个长音符开始。

27. I was wondering whether...我想知道是否……

I was wondering whether/if…我想知道是否……

用过去时was表示语气更加委婉。

I was wondering whether you had any comments about that?请问您对此有何见解?

28. They have a chat and the man starts to tell his story.他们聊起天来,该男子开始讲述他的故事。

have a chat 聊天

Lets find a place to have a chat.我们找个地方聊一聊吧。

29. The next morning I was to start for the West to make my fortune.第二天早晨,我要动身去西部闯荡一番发财去。

be to do结构的常见用法:

表示按计划、安排即将发生某事。

They are to be married in October.他们打算10月结婚。

表示应该做什么,也表示命令、禁止、义务或可能性,接近于should, must, have to等。

No one is to leave the building.任何人不得离开大楼。

表示注定要发生的事。

Better days are soon to follow.好日子很快就会到来。

30. You couldnt have dragged Jimmy out of New York; he thought it was the only place on earth.你不可能把吉米拉出纽约,他认为这是地球上唯一的地方。

couldnt/cant have done 不可能做过某事

(1) could/can have done表示对过去情况的推测,一般只用于否定句和疑问句。

I couldnt have left it on the bus.我不可能把它落在公共汽车上了。

(2) could have done可表示与过去事实相反的假设,意为“过去本可以/本能够做而实际上

未做”。

I could have won the game but decided to let her win.我本可以赢得那场比赛,但还是决定

让她赢。

31. We figured that in twenty years each of us ought to have our destiny worked out and our fortunes made, whatever they were going to be.我们认为在二十年以后,我们都已知天命,各成家业,至于是好是坏都无所谓了。

(1) figure that...认为(=think that…)

Somehow, I figure that our citizens are not able to tell right from wrong.不管怎么说,我觉得

我们的国民还不够明辨是非。

(2) have sth done 使某事或某物被……;(主语)遭受……

We had the machine mended just now.我们刚才请人把机器修好了。

32.“It sounds pretty interesting,” said the policeman.“听起来很有趣,”警察说道。

pretty用作副词,修饰形容词时相当于very。文中还出现过pretty big和pretty lively。

That performance was pretty impressive.那场表演很出色。

33. When you struck the match to light your cigar I saw it was the face of the man wanted in Chicago.当你划火柴点雪茄的时候,我看到的是一张芝加哥警方通缉犯的脸。

strike the match 划火柴

Dont strike the match to light the cigarette.不要擦亮火柴去点香烟。

34. Read Bobs story after he was released from jail and answer the questions.阅读鲍勃出狱后

的故事并回答问题。

be released from jail 出狱

Charles has been released from jail, where he lived for two years.查理斯在监狱里生活了两

年,现在刑满被放出来了。

35. Stepping out of jail into the cold wind, Bob, now 58, felt lost and helpless.在寒风中走出监

狱,现年58岁的鲍勃感到迷茫和无助。

step out of 从……中走出来

You can slowly and carefully step out of the elevator.你可以慢慢地小心地走出电梯。

step into 走进......

They step into a speciality store.她们走进了一家专卖店。

36. Was he ashamed of having a friend like me?他为有我这样的朋友而感到羞耻吗?

be ashamed of 为……感到羞耻

You should be ashamed of your bad manners.你应该对自己的不礼貌感到羞耻。

37. He turned around and was surprised to find a familiar-looking man in his thirties.他转过身来,

惊讶地发现一名30来岁面熟的男子。

(1) turn around 转过身来

Then they turn around to their friends and give a big grin.然后他们转向朋友们,露出了大大

的笑容。

(2) be surprised to do sth.惊讶地做某事

I was surprised to see her in Japan.当我在日本看到她时,我很是惊讶。

38. Bob shouted in surprise.鲍勃惊讶地喊道。

in surprise (=surprisingly)惊讶地

Mr. Earnshaw stared at us in surprise.恩萧先生惊奇地盯着我们。

39. More than one description may be suitable.描述可能不止一个合适。

more than one 不止一个

What if a book has more than one author?如果一本书有不止一个作者,怎么办?

40. Where will the ending take place?结局会发生在哪里?

take place 发生(不及物动词短语)

Where did this transaction take place?这个交易在哪里发生的?

41. The more friends you have, the happier youll be.你朋友越多,就会越幸福。

the more... the more...越……就越……

The more stress you are under, the more likely you are to catch a cold.压力越大,越有可能

患感冒。

42. Think of reasons to support your opinion and make notes.想出支持你观点的理由并做笔记。

make notes 做笔记

As a student, in classes we should listen to the teacher attentively and make notes carefully.

作为一名学生,在课堂上我们应该认真听老师讲课和仔细做笔记。

43. In my opinion…我认为……

in ones opinion 在某人看来,某人认为

In my opinion, he did the right thing.在我看来,他那样做是对的。

44. Thats a good point, but…好主意,但是……

Thats a good point.好主意。

Thats a good point, but its not the same thing.说得好,可是这不一样。

45.语法总结:定语从句(一):关系代词的用法

1)定语从句定义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的句子叫做定语从句。在句中作定语。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句作定语放在先行词的后面。

引导定语从句的词有关系代词that(指人或物),which(指物),who(指人),whom(指人),whose(指人或物)和关系副词when(时间), where(地点), why(原因)。关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间,既起连接作用同时又作定语从句的一个成分。

eg. China is a great country that has about 5000 years of history.中国是一个有大约5000年

历史的伟大国家。(作主语)

Could you tell me something about the places that you visited?你能告诉我一些你参观

过的地方吗?(作宾语)

注意:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

eg. The man who lives next to us is a policeman.住在我们隔壁的那个人是警察。

The books that are bought by my father are very useful.我爸爸买的书很有用。

2)关系代词的用法

指物的关系代词

which指物,在定语从句中作主语或者宾语,作宾语时可省略。

Football is a game which is liked by most boys.足球是一项大多数男孩都喜欢的运动。

(作主语)

This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday.这就是他昨天买的那支钢笔。(作宾语)

that指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which,在定语从句中做主语、

宾语或者表语,做宾语时可省略。

The people that/who come to visit the city are all here.来参观这个城市的人都在这里。

Where is the man (that/whom) I saw this morning?我今天早上见到的那个人在哪里?

(作宾语)

who 指人,在定语从句中可作主语或宾语,作宾语时可省略。

We are concerned about people who have suffered a lot in the earthquake.我们为在地震

中遭受重创的人们而担心。(作主语)

Danny was the man who we rescued from the ruins.丹尼正是我们从废墟中救出来的那

个人。(作宾语)

whom 指人,在定语从句中作宾语,可省略,也可用who代替。

Rose is the person (who/whom) you should care about.罗丝是你应该关心的人。(作宾

语)

whose 既可指人也可指物,表“所属”关系,在定语从句中作定语。

I know the person whose house was totally destroyed in the earthquake.我认识那个人,

他的房子在地震中被彻底摧毁了。

3)宜用that不宜用which的情况:

当先行词被序数词或形容词*高级修饰时。

This is the most delicious food that I have ever had.这是我吃过的*美味的食物。

当先行词是all, little, few, much, everything, anything, nothing, none等不定代词或被这

些词修饰时。

All that can be done has been done.一切能做的都已经做了。

当先行词被the only, the very, the last, the same等修饰时。

The only thing that she could do was go to the police for help.她唯一能做的事就是去

求助警察。

This is the very book that I want to buy.这就是我想买的那本书。

当先行词既包括人又包括物时。

Sometimes we should ignore the persons and things that upset us.有时,我们应该不理

会让我们不快的人和事。

当主句是以who, which开头的特殊疑问句时。

Which of the books that you bought is the most useful for my writing?你买的书中哪一

本对我的写作*有用?

4)宜用which不宜用that的情况:

引导非限制性定语从句时。

Football, which is an interesting game, is very popular all over the world.足球是一项有

趣的运动,在全世界非常受欢迎。

当关系代词前有介词时。

This is the house in which Mo Yan once lived.这就是莫言曾经住过的房子。

当先行词本身就是that时。

That which you told him is what we want to know.你告诉他的事情就是我们想知道的。

在限制性定语从句中,如果有两个定语从句,其中一句的关系词是that,那么另一句

的关系词宜用which。

Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open.让我

给你看看我从新开的图书馆借来的小说。

5)宜用who不宜用that的情况:

当先行词是指人的不定代词时,如one, ones, anyone, no one, nobody, anybody, none, all等。

Is there anyone in your class who is good at singing?你们班有人擅长唱歌吗?

在there be结构中,先行词指人时。

There is a young lady who is in a state of shock.有位年轻女士休克了。

当先行词是people, those时。

People who want to travel abroad should apply for a passport first.想要出国旅行的人应

该先申请护照。

一个句子中带有两个定语从句且先行词都为人时,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是

that,另一个宜用who。

The boy that you met last night is the group leader who studies very hard.昨晚你遇到的

那个男孩就是那个学习非常努力的组长。

6)关系代词as引导的定语从句

as既可指人也可指物。在定语从句中可作主语、宾语或表语。它常用于the same...as...,

such...as..., as不能省略。

Ill buy the same dictionary as you have.我要买和你的一样的词典。

Such reasons as we give can persuade him to give up his foolish plan.我们给出的这些理由可以说服他放弃他的愚蠢计划。

as引导非限制性定语从句,代替整个主句的内容。从句可放在主句前、主句后或主

句中间。

As you know, she is a stubborn girl, and I cant persuade her to change her mind.你知道,

她是一个倔强的女孩,我不能说服她改变主意